What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor develops in prostatic tissues, it is the result of irregular growth of prostatic acinar cells.
Incidence of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer rarely develops in the males younger than 45. But its incidence increases sharply as age increases and most prostate cancer patients are older than 65 years old. Basically, the incidence is doubling each additional 10 years in those males older than 40. And the risk for the males in 50-59 years old is 10%, but for the ones in 80-89 years old, the risk goes up to 70%.
Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer
Absolute risk factors:
1) Age, it is the main risk factor of prostate cancer.
2) Family history, the incidence would obviously increase in those males whose direct relatives have suffered from prostate cancer.
3) Race. African Americans got the top incidence of prostate cancer, after that is Spanish and American white people and black African got the lowest incidence worldwide.
4) Irregular pathological changes of cells occur inside prostate. The incidence remarkably goes up in those males who have intraepithelial canceration of high-level prostate cancer.
Relative risk factors:
1) Diets: prostate cancer is inclined to develop in the males who often have the diets that are rich in animal fat.
2) Androgen level. Internal androgen can stimulate the growth of prostate and is one of the inducements of prostate cancer.
How does Prostate Cancer Spread?
Prost cancer can spread extensively through blood and veins, and mostly extends to lungs and bones. The bones like pelvis, vertebra, ribs, femurs, clavicles, etc. can also be involved. But how does prostate cancer spread to vertebra, some specialists thought that was by vertebral venous plexus. However, there is proof supporting that prostate cancer spreads in the same way of other cancers, systemic circulation. In that case, the cases with vertebra metastases are probably have lung metastases.
Rehabilitation Measures of Prostate Cancer
1. Interference of psychological rehabilitation. It helps patient eliminate the depression and anxiety, while it can encourage patients to be open-minded and keep a strong perseverance to cooperate with treatments.
2. Interference of diets and intestinal care. In order to reduce the incidence of constipation after operation, the patient should take more bland and easy digested fruits and vegetables, of which are rich in fibrin. Beside, drink more water and have defecation regularly in the morning each day to ensure a smooth bowel movement. Avoid spicy and irritating diets to prevent from constipation.
3. Interference of cystospasm care. When cystospasm occurs, the patient should take a deep breath and the family members can do some massage to relieve the pain. If post operative continuous cystospasm develops, pain killer should be given.
In addition, nice sleeping helps the patient recover, so a reasonable work-rest schedule to create a comfortable and proper sleeping environment is important.
What kinds of supports can be obtained?
Practice proves that the clinic team services composed by multiple disciplines like oncosurgery, oncology, pathology, imageology and anesthesia doctors as well as professional nurses, can provide patients with most effective, most suitable and most economic treatment plan, and also can greatly improve the therapeutic effect of treating cancer patients.
“One station” medical system constructed by Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou combining multiple disciplines, can perform comprehensive diagnosis and treatment for patients under the condition of without adding patients’ burden. Therefore, on one hand, it can provide all-round and heartfelt medical services, and on the other hand, it improves medical efficiency and level. There are many channels can be applied to conduct the communication between patients and doctors, like online consultation, email, telephone conversation, and face-to-face consultation. All these consultation services can effectively help patients to fight the cancer. While the medical team faced by the patients includes doctors, nurses, dietitians, interpreters and so on to meet various demands in different level of different countries. Patients would be more confident under the unobstructed communication environment to cooperate the hospital to diagnose and treat the diseases.
In early stage of prostate cancer, there is no special clinical manifestation, while as time goes by, prostate cancer shall manifest many kinds of symptoms and these symptoms would get worse gradually. To sum up, there are mainly three aspects as follows:
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Urination obstruction: because the tumor’s volume increases gradually so as to squeeze urethra, so patients with prostate cancer will suffer from increasingly getting-worse symptoms like dysuria, frequent urination or urination urgency, or other stimulation symptoms like odynuria. Part of advanced stage prostate cancer patients would suffer from urinary retention because they are completely unable to urinate.
Other tissues to be involved in: when prostate cancer invades adjacent or surrounded tissues or organs, a series of local infiltration symptoms shall be caused, for example, tumor invading nerve and cavitas pelvis would cause pain in lower abdomen as well as in perineum or even in testis, or bearing-down pain in scrotum or lumgago; tumor invading urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, would cause these symptoms like bloody urination, hemospemia; tumor invading ureter would cause hydronephrosis; if urethra is invaded, corresponding symptoms like urine retention or urinary incontinence and so on are caused.
Tumor metastasis: it is easy for prostate cancer to spread to skeleton, before skeleton being destroyed, prostate cancer patients shall suffer from great pain, and meanwhile bear the added risk of bone fracture. If bone marrow is damaged, the immunity degrade or anaemia would appear; tumor spreading to blood vessels or lymph node surrounding, circulation of blood or lymph fluid would be obstructed or blocked so that the limbs or perineum of patients shall suffer from edema; tumor spreading to lung, would cause chest pain, pulmonary infection, respiration difficulty, coughing up blood and so on; tumor spreading to liver, would cause discomforts to liver area, jaundice and so on; tumor spreading to brain, would cause headache, dizziness, vomiting, unconsciousness and so on; advanced stage prostate cancer patients may suffer from pleural fluid, ascites, swollen all over the body and so on.
Experts of Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou warmly remind: if prostate cancer similar symptoms appear, go to standardized hospital for further examinations and timely treatments at the first time.
As there is not much obvious symptom of early prostate cancer, many patients fail to have diagnosis timely. When they are admitted in hospital, they have missed the best chance of treatment. Get to know the diagnosis of prostate cancer and find out how prostate cancer can be detected.
Diagnostic Methods of Prostate Cancer
1. Prostate specific antigen determination: prostate specific antigen is a specific secretion of prostate. Its density can be determined through blood test. The prostate cancer patients' PSA value is comparatively higher than normal people.
2. Rectal touch: it can find out whether there are hard nodules in the surface of prostate, but can not detect early prostate cancer.
3. Biopsy: when detected with nodules and high value of PSA, one can have a biopsy, which is performed by inserting a puncture needle through rectum into the tumor under the guidance of B-ultrasound, to get a more accurate diagnosis.
4. B-ultrasound, CT and MRI: these examination methods are generally used among diagnosed prostate cancer patients to stage the cancer and check whether there is lymphatic metastasis in the surrounding of the prostate. To more accurately stage the cancer, CT or MRI must be done before biopsy, as changes of inner prostate after biopsy will cause inaccurate staging.
5. Body radioactive nuclide bone scan: it can detect early bone metastasis, which often happen among prostate cancer patients.
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor develops in prostate tissues. Specialist from Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou figured out that, once a patient is diagnosed prostate cancer shall never be nervous or panic, instead but go to a regular hospital for treatments.
Traditional Prostate Cancer Treatments
1. Surgery currently is the most common treatment to prostate cancer. Through opening surgery can radically remove a part of or the whole prostate affected to prevent metastases from occurring.
2. Radiotherapy includes external radiation and interstitial radiation. Interstitial radiation is usually combined with prostatectomy or pelvic lymphadenectomy. General radiation in certain degree can relieve the local pain arising from bone metastases and control the development of lesions.
3.Chemotherapy is a systematic treatment of prostate cancer with chemicals, which can effectively control the spread and metastases of cancer cells.
4. TCM (Traditional Chinese medicine) on one hand can efficiently kill and depress on cancer cells to relieve patient condition, on the other hand regulates the physical condition of patient to improve clinical symptoms and enhance immunity to generally acquire better cure effect.
Biological immunotherapy, which is also named autoimmune cell therapy, is to separate the special cells against tumor, DC and CIK monocytes, from peripheral blood of human body, then transfuse back to patient after cell culture and proliferation in laboratory. It kills the tumor cells systematically and prevents the occurrence of metastases and spread, what is more it comes over the shortages like easy metastases, great side effects and so on of three traditional treatments: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Advantages of Biological Immunotherapy in Treating Prostate Cancer
1. It can effectively remove the cancer cells or small lesions left in surgery and radiotherapy.
2. Enhance the sensitivity of a patient to radiotherapy, reduce the toxic side effects of radiotherapy and improve the cure effect of chemotherapy.
3. Regulate immunity and repair somatocytes to greatly improve the survival quality of patient.
4. To the late-stage patients who have lost the chance of surgery or have developed recurrence and metastases, it can rapidly relieve clinical symptoms. Most patients can get the therapeutic efficacy like tumor shrinking or surviving with tumor in long term.
Specialist from Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou figured out that, in order to gain the best cure effect, the treatments for prostate cancer should not simply focus on local treatment or tend to only one treatment, but shall combine multi-disciplinary treatments like surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, TCM, minimally invasive therapy and so on together according to a patient condition.