What is anal cancer?
Anal cancer is a kind of malignant tumor which originates from cells inside anus, and often locates in the skin of anal canal or margin. Anal periphery cancer means the tumor locates under tooth trace of anus, while squamous cell cancer occurs more often in and around the anus or anal canal, and often is caused by long-term chronic stimulations and damages, like anal fistula, hemorrhoid, surgical scar, warts and latent hair.
How common are morbidity and mortality of anal cancer?
Anal cancer is a kind of less common cancer, but there are around 30,400 people are diagnosed with anal cancer each year around the world. About 710 people are died of anal cancer each year. What’s more, there are a steadily growing trend for morbidity and mortality of annal cancer. Anal cancer is more common seen in women, and female and male incidence rate ratio is 3:2.
What are the causes of anal cancer?
Causes of anal cancer are still not defined, but some studies showed that some factors may be associated with anal cancer, which include: Human papillomavirus (HPV), sexual activity, smoking, HIV infection, anal benign disease and others.
What are the types of anal cancer?
In accordance with the difference of onset parts of anal cancer, it can be classified into the following types: cancer in situ, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, basal cell cancer and malignant melanoma.
Cancer in situ: some anal superficial cells look like abnormal cancer cells;
Squamous cell carcinoma: tumor from squamous cells in the anal margin and most of the anal canal.
Adenocarcinoma: it originates from the gland that release anal secretions and is below anal mucous membrane or from the apocrine gland as well (a perianal skin gland that secrets sweat).
Basal cell cancer: it occurs around the perianal skin or other skin parts that are regularly exposed to the sun, such as face and hands, but it is rare to occur in the anus.
Malignant melanoma: it refers to the tumor developed by the anus skin cells that contain melanin, and there are only about 1-2% of anal cancers are melanomas.
What are the nursing methods of anal cancer?
Anal cancer patients shall actively cooperate with doctors’ treatments;
Anal cancer patient shall adhere to good living habits;
Anal cancer patients shall give up smoking (if any) and never eat hot spicy foods;
Anal cancer patients shall eat more fresh vegetables and fruits;
Family members and friends of anal cancer patients shall care and encourage patients in no time;
Anal cancer patient shall avoid negative, sad or upset emotion.