The formation of oral cancer is a chronic pathological process: it may take several years, even decades to develop into typical or obvious cancer lesions. Therefore, regular oral check can timely and effectively prevent the occurrence of oral cancer.
1. Imaging examinations
(1) Radioactive nuclide inspection can provide information related to bone metastases of tongue thyroid or oral cancer.
(3) X-ray plain film and fault photography can provide more valuable information if oral cancer has invaded maxillary bone, mandible or accessory nasal paranasal sinus.
(4) CT inspection can observe tumor size, scope and surrounding tissues and the relationship with carotid artery, so that help to understand whether there is neck lymph node metastasis.
2. Cytological examination and biopsy
Exfoliative cytological is suitable for asymptomatic precancerous lesions or early squamous carcinoma that has not clear lesion range, and also suitable for screening inspection, and after that biopsy can be further performed to confirm the positive or suspicious cases.
Diagnosis of oral squamous carcinoma is usually conducted through pliers-taken or chipped biopsy. Because of its surface mucous membrane have been run broken or not normal, and also in superficial position; it should avoid the dead keratinized tissue, and also take samples in the boundary area between the tumor and surrounding normal tissue to guarantee that the sample has both tumor tissue and normal tissue.
Although the above biopsy rarely discovers tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, however, for some cases whose treatments have been delayed too long, local tumor growth acceleration can be found, so the interval between biopsy and clinical treatment shall be as short as possible. Besides, biopsy should be performed in the hospital that is capable of giving effective treatments.
(1) Conduct symmetry observation on the head and neck and pay attention to the change of skin color. (2) Touch neck from ear hind to clavicle and pay attention to whether there is pain and mass. (3) Open lower lip, observe red labial part and inner mucous membrane, use forefinger and thumb to open the lips towards outside as well as from left towards right; do the same to the upper lip to touch lump (if any) and observe if there is trauma. (4) Observe gums and touch genal region.
(5) Tongue and the base of the mouth: stick out tongue, observe the tongue color and texture; use sterile gauze encase the tip of tongue, and then pull the tongue toward left or right to observe the edge of the tongue; use forefinger and thumb touch tongue body and pay attention to whether there is abnormal mass; check the mouth floor with tongue being licked at palate, in order to look for the color and shape change, and then use forefinger touch the month floor; (6) Palatine: use toothbrush pin tongue to check the palatine with head slightly backward so that observe the color and shape of soft palate as well as hard palate.
Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou remind that periodical oral check can contribute to early detection of disease; if early treatment is given, the treatment effects will be greatly enhanced.