What is Endometrial Cancer?
Endometrial cancer is the malignant tumor happened in endometrial gland, which is the one of the three malignant tumors of female and ranks 7% of total female cancers, 20-30% of genital tract malignant cancer. Endometrial cancer can happen in any age, but the high risky age are among 58-61, nearly 50-70% are happened after menostasia. Recent years, there is a increasing trend for endometrial cancer and even exceeds that of cervical cancer. The 5 years survival period for advanced stage endometrial cancer patients is about 25-30%, and the recurrence of endometrial cancer is the main factor that influence the 5 years survival rate.
Causes of Endometrial Cancer
By now the medical field still cannot define the exact causes of endometrial cancer. Generally it is believed that multi-factors have contributed the occurrence of endometrial cancer, which include: cervical erosion, frequent sexual behavior, disordered sex life, ignoring sexual behavior cleaning as well as menstruation, redundant prepuce of sex partner, herpes type II virus infection as well as HPV infection, venereal disease, mantle bacteria infection, etc.
High Risky Group of Endometrial Cancer
1. Obese people: hyperliposis can somehow increase the risk of suffering from endometrial cancer;
2. Diabetic patients: the risk of suffering from endometrial cancer for diabetic patients or these people with abnormal glucose tolerance is 2.8times higher than that of normal people;
3. High blood pressure patients: endometrial cancer appeals to high blood pressure patients;
4. Menstrual disorder patients: menstrual disorder, heavy menstruation, this may increase the risk of suffering from endometrial cancer 3 times higher than that of normal women;
5. Early menarche or later menopause females: menarche comes before 12 years old may increase 60% risk of suffering endometrial cancer than these whose menarche comes after 12 years old, while menopause delays 6 years than that of normal menopause period may also increase the risk;
6. Endometrial cancer appeal to these female who give multiple birth to babies, or never have a child, or even have infertilitas;
7. Polycystic ovarian syndrome;
8. Ovarian tumor patients: it may lead to menstrual disorder, postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer;
9. Females who take estrogenics have high risk for suffering from endometrial cancer.
Staging of Endometrial Cancer
If it is definitely diagnosed that there is cancer, doctors shall further get to know the condition so that make out the most suitable treatment plan. The principle for judging stages of tumor relies on whether the tumor has invaded to adjacent tissues; whether there is metastasis, if it is, which parts it has spread to.The stages of endometrial cancer are:
0 Degree: just adenomatoid hyperplasia occurs, that is cancer in situ;
I Degree: cancer is just limited within the uterine;
II Degree: cancer has invaded to cervix;
III Degree: cancer has spread outside of uterine (including vagina), but not exceeding lesser pelvis;
IV Degree: cancer has exceeded out the lesser pelvis or obviously invaded bladder or rectum mucosa.
What kinds of supports can be obtained?
Practice proves that the clinic team services composed by multiple disciplines like oncosurgery, oncology, pathology, imageology and anesthesia doctors as well as professional nurses, can provide patients with most effective, most suitable and most economic treatment plan, and also can greatly improve the therapeutic effect of treating cancer patients.
“One station” medical system constructed by Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou combining multiple disciplines, can perform comprehensive diagnosis and treatment for patients under the condition of without adding patients’ burden. Therefore, on one hand, it can provide all-round and heartfelt medical services, and on the other hand, it improves medical efficiency and level. There are many channels can be applied to conduct the communication between patients and doctors, like online consultation, email, telephone conversation, and face-to-face consultation. All these consultation services can effectively help patients to fight the cancer. While the medical team faced by the patients includes doctors, nurses, dietitians, interpreters and so on to meet various demands in different level of different countries. Patients would be more confident under the unobstructed communication environment to cooperate the hospital to diagnose and treat the diseases.
Symptoms of Endometrial Cancer
There is no obvious symptom in early stage, and it can only be detected
during extensive survey or gynecologic examination for other reasons. Once
symptoms appear, then they may manifest as follows:
1.Vaginal bleeding: this is the earliest and most common symptom for
endometrial cancer, and it often manifests irregular bleeding, or heavy or
light, and female before menopause often have heavy menstrual blood volume and
it lasts for long time; after menopause, it often manifests as vaginal
2.Vaginal apocenosis: the falling off of endometrial cancer tissue necrosis
can cause effusion to be drained through vagina; and the effusion manifests like
rice-water mixed with blood or purulence companied with evil smelling;
3.Pain: advanced stage patients often bear great pain which is caused by
tumor pressing nerves and can be occurred at the position of lumbosacral area,
hypogastrium or even extend to the leg;
4.Advanced stage patients can touch the enlarged womb under the hypogastrium
, it can cause swelling and pain to lower extremity or other systemic exhaustion
like anaemia, emaciation, fervescence, dyscrasia, etc.
Auxiliary examinations can be carried out as per the abovementioned symptoms
to diagnose endometrial cancer, therefore, females shall pay attention to any
changes occurred to menstruation and the characters of vaginal secretions. Once
certain symptoms appear, go to hospital for examination timely.
Endometrial cancer is a common gynecological malignant tumor, whose incidence rate is preceded only by that of uterine cervical cancer, so it is a great threat to the health of women. However, many women don't understand endometrial cancer, so that they cannot be timely treated, what's worse, when admitted by the hospital, they have already missed the best treatment time. Therefore, how can we do to diagnose whether have suffered from endometrial cancer or not? Cancer experts of Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou would like to introduce the following methods for diagnosing endometrial cancer:
Methods for diagnosing endometrial cancer
1. Diagnostic curettage: curettage examination is an indispensable method for diagnosing endometrial cancer. Usually first curettage of cervical canals, then followed by uterine cavity examination, next followed by scoraping endomembrane inside the uterine cavity; after identifying the bottles of samples, send them for pathological examination. The result of pathological examination shall be regarded as the foundation of diagnosing endometrial cancer;
2. Hysteroscopy: hysteroscopy can not only observe the uterine cavity, but also the carotid canal, especially with the application of microscopic hysteroscopy, observation can be more detailed. With hysteroscopy, doctors can directly observe the tumor site, size and judge whether the boundary is limitative or disseminated; whether it is exogenous or endogenous type; whether cervical canal has been affected or not. It can directly get suspicious lesions of the living tissue under the guidance of hysteroscopy and sent it for histopathological examination, besides, the accuracy of hysteroscopy on diagnosing endometrial cancer amounts to 94%.
3. Uterine cavity pipette：Apply specially-made uterine cavity sipper or brush to place inside the uterine cavity and take suction of secretions for cytological examination, or for screening.
4. B ultrasound examination: B ultrasound examination is one of the routine examination of endometrial cancer; uterine ultrasonography has certain significance in uterine cavity size, location of endometrial cancer, and in whether the tumor has penetrated through the uterine serosa or involved the cervical canal; especially has a certain reference value in the understanding of myometrial invasion and clinical staging area.
5. Retroperitoneal lymphography: it can determine whether there is pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastasis, so that facilitate treatment options determination.
6. CT scan: computed tomography (CT) has a certain meaning on endometrial cancer diagnosis as CT scanning image features clear and can accurately delineate the fine structure of tissue, tumor size, scope. CT may also determine the surrounding connective tissue of uterine tumor, pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes and pelvic wall, peritoneal metastatic nodules.
Cancer experts of Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou remind: if diagnosed with endometrial cancer, patients should promptly go to the regular hospital for treatments.
Endometrial cancer treatment has various methods, including operation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, Chinese medicine treatment and biological immunotherapy. Experts of Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou pointed out, endometrial cancer treatment should not unilaterally rely on local treatment or a single treatment method, instead, integrated applications which may include several treatment methods, such as operation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, minimally invasive or other treatment methods, shall be carried out as per patient's actual condition to achieve the best therapeutic effect.
Traditional treatment methods of endometrial cancer
1. Operation: It is the most common treatment solution for early stage endometrial cancer. It can be defined as per patients’ condition, for example, ecphyadectomy for complete uterus with double sides or catholicity complete uterus and pelvic cavity lymph node dissection;
2. Radiotherapy: as endometrial cancer is sensitive to radiotherapy, so radiotherapy can achieve a radical effect for these patients of stage I/II who are not willing to receive surgery; while for advanced endometrial cancer patients, radiotherapy alone may not impose good effects, however, some elderly patients may be weak or also have other severe internal diseases so that they may not be able to receive surgery, in such case, radiotherapy is usually conducted through intracavity or extracorporeal irradiation, and also can achieve good therapeutic effect.
3. Chemotherapy: it is usually applied for advanced stage patients who cannot perform surgery or radiotherapy or these patients reoccur after treatment.
4. Chinese medicine treatment: patients with endometrial cancer often have poor physical quality and low immunity, so they may easily be affected by other infections. If Chinese medicines is given after surgery, they would regulate equilibrium and strengthen body resistance, induct the differentiation and apoptosis of cells without harm to normal tissue so that improve patients’ debilitation status. Combining TCM with western medicines, the therapeutic effect shall be magnified and exceed the effect of single therapy.
Bio-immunotherapy of endometrial cancer
Biological immune therapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer can completely remove small lesions of endometrial cancer in blood or lymph after surgery and prevent endometrial cancer recurrence and metastasis; in addition, the use of biological immunotherapy after sensitized immune cell infusion into the body, with the character of specific selectivity, can just kill the endometrial cancer cells, but not damage other normal cells. If biological immunotherapy is given at the same of or after chemotherapy, it can effectively reduce the toxic reaction of chemotherapy, increase the number of white blood cells and enhance immune function, thus ensure smooth implementation of radiotherapy.
Experts of Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou point out that, if diagnosed with endometrial cancer, patients can go to Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou for treatment where experts would design customized treatment plan as per the actual condition.