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Hodgkin's lymphoma

What is Hodgkins Lymphoma?

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a malignant lymphoid tissue tumor that originates from B cells in the lymph system. The condition is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are heterogeneous large B lymphocytes. Hodgkin’s lymphoma usually develops in the lymph nodes, but it can also be found in other lymphoid tissues and organs.


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Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

Painful traditional techniques

ll Surgical removal: Highly traumatic and risky;

ll Radiotherapy&Chemotherapy: high toxicity and side effects, e.g.: hair loss, vomiting, etc.

New technique for treating Hodgkin’s lymphoma effective in improving survival rates

Minimally invasive technologies: 2-3 millimeter incision with few side effects and less pain

Interventional Therapy: With 1-2mm incision, the anti-cancer drugs directly reach the inside of the tumor, the drug concentration is 2-8 times higher than systemic chemotherapy, with less side effects and precise extermination of cancer cells.

 Cryotherapy: small trauma, local removal of tumor tissues, stimulation of body immunity, small damage to normal lung tissues, prevention of cancer recurrence.

Particle implantation: tiny trauma of millimeters, continuous and uniform radiation of particles in the tumor for 180 days, precise destruction of tumor tissues with fewer complications.

Microwave ablation: 3mm pinhole-sized wound, high thermal efficiency, short operation time, usually 10 minutes to ablate tumors with a diameter of 6CM, high safety, no toxic side effects, low recurrence rate, wide range of indications.

Combination of Chinese and Western medicine: Enhanced efficacy, reduced toxic side effects, fewer complications, faster recovery, prolonged survival, and even the ability to live with the tumor.


Hodgkin’s lymphoma is categorized into different subtypes, including classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma and mixed-cell Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma is further categorized into the following four subtypes:

1、Mixed Cellularity: this is the most common subtype, containing multiple cell types.

2、Lymphocyte-rich: lymphocytes are the main cell type.

3、Nodular Sclerosis: characterized by fibrosis and mass lesions.

4、Lymphocyte-depleted: relatively few Reed-Sternberg cells, mainly fibrosis and lymphocytopenia.


Stages of Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is staged according to the Ann Arbor staging system, a system commonly used to describe the staging of lymphoma disease.The Ann Arbor staging system divides Hodgkin’s lymphoma into four main stages, as well as sub-stages within each main stage.

stage I: involvement of a single lymph node region or of a single extralymphatic organ or site

Substaging: 

A: Absence of any B symptoms (e.g., fever, night sweats, weight loss).

B: presence of B symptoms

stage II: involvement of two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm

Substaging:

 A: Absence of any B symptoms

B: presence of B symptoms

stage III: Lymphoma has spread to both sides of the diaphragm or to areas of lymph nodes outside the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Substaging:

A: Absence of any B symptoms

B: presence of B symptoms

stage IV: diffuse or disseminated involvement of one or more extralymphatic organs, including any involvement of the liver, lungs, or bone marrow.

Substaging: 

A: Absence of any B symptoms

B: presence of B symptoms

In the Ann Arbor staging system, B symptoms are fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The exact determination of staging requires a series of tests such as physical examination, imaging (e.g., CT scan, PET-CT scan), and lymph node biopsy.


What is signs and symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma

1. Swollen lymph nodes: This is one of the most typical symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, groin and other areas, which are usually painless or only slightly painful.

2. Fatigue: The patient may feel fatigued for a long period of time, and it is not easy to regain energy.

3. Fever: Fever may be continuous or intermittent, and may be more pronounced especially at night.

4. Drenching night sweats: Night sweats are usually manifested as profuse sweating at night, sometimes resulting in sweat-soaked sheets and clothing.

5. Weight loss: Weight loss for unknown reason may be one of the symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is associated with loss of appetite and changes in metabolism.

6. Pruritus: Some patients may feel itchy skin, especially in the area of enlarged lymph nodes.

7. Chest or abdominal pain: If the lymphoma spreads to the chest or abdomen, it may cause pain in the corresponding areas.

8. Cough or difficulty breathing: If the lymphoma affects the lymph nodes in the chest or the lungs, it may cause symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.



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