What Is Colon Cancer?
Colon cancer refers to a tumor arising from colonic mucosal epithelium which becomes malignant under the impact of various carcinogenic factors like environment, genetics, etc. It often occurs in rectum and the junction of rectum and sigmoid colon. The incidence rate of colon cancer is second only to gastric and esophageal cancer. Conlon cancer is more common in the people at age of 40 to 50 and patients with colon cancer who are under age of 40 accounts for approximately 15%. The male and female ratio is 2:1.
Causes of Colon Cancer?
1. Diet: diets high in fat or low in fiber are believed to predispose humans to colon cancer.
2. Genetics: if first-degree relatives develop colon cancer, the risk of the next generations developing colon cancer is higher than others.
3. Colon polyps: polyps grow in the inner wall of colon or rectum, which are benign initially but it is likely to become malignant.
4. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis: the risk of developing colon cancer in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis is 30 times higher than others.
Who are High-risk Populations?
1. The population has a history of familial polyposis.
2. The people have first-degree relatives with colon cancer.
3. Occult blood test shows positive in a long term.
4. Patients develop chronic ulcerative colitis.
5. The population has chronic diarrhea or chronic constipation.
Stages of Colon Cancer are:
Stage 0: abnormal cells are found in the wall of colon and colon cancer in this stage is also called primary cancer.
Stage I: Cancer is in the inner layers of colon, invading submucosa
Stage II: Cancer has spread through the muscle wall of the colon, but it has not spread to lymph nodes.
Stage III: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes around colon, but it has not invaded other parts of body.
Stage IV: Cancer has spread to other organs, such as lung, liver, abdominal wall, ovary, etc.
Reoccurrence: colon cancer reoccurs after treatment and the recurrent regions are colon or other organs.