Precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma are three stages in the development of cancer. Precancerous lesions, the intermediate state from benign to malignant, are chronic inflammatory diseases in most cases. When the inflammation persists, oxidative stress or the appearance of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the microenvironment may cause cellular DNA damage, inhibit its repair, and progress to cancer.
If the lesions can be treated in time with surgical resection and elimination of inflammation, the precancerous lesions can return to normal. Cancer experts from St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou remind that please take timely checkup and treatment if precancerous lesions occur.
Eight common cases of precancerous lesions:
1. Gastrointestinal disease (atrophy, intestinalization)
The development of gastric cancer is usually as follows: normal gastric mucosa - chronic non-atrophic gastritis - chronic atrophic gastritis-intestinal- intraepithelial neoplasia - cancer. In the process, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is a very important independent pathogenic factor. Once atrophy and intestinalization occur, intraepithelial neoplasia will follow.
2. Cystic hyperplasia of the breast
Cystic hyperplasia of the breast, a cyst formed by the highly dilated lobular ducts and terminal ducts of the breast, usually occurs with malformed breast lesions. If the resulting endocrine hormone disorder is not well adjusted, and at the same time stimulated by factors such as work pressure, interpersonal relationships, and emotional disorders, unlimited malignant hyperplasia may occur, and eventually it become breast cancer.
Leukoplakia usually occurs in the oral cavity and pudendum, and the lesions are white or off-white, with a rough touch.
Leukoplakia is clinically related to diabetes, endocrine disorders, vitamin deficiency, and HPV infection. At present, research has indicated that there is a significant correlation between oral leukoplakia and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
4. AH / EIN
Endometrial dysplasia (AH) / intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) is considered as a precancerous lesion of type I endometrial cancer, and up to 60% of EIN patients also have or will progress to endometrial cancer.
When abnormal bleeding occurs before menopause, bleeding between menstrual periods, or vaginal bleeding after menopause, one should be alert to the possibility of endometrial hyperplasia.
5. Adenomatous polyps
The development of colorectal adenocarcinoma mostly occurs as follows: polyps-adenomas-atypical hyperplasia-early cancer-advanced cancer. Selective resection of colorectal polyps in the early stage is critical to prevent colorectal cancer.
Precancerous lesions of the liver mostly occur on the basis of cirrhosis. Common symptoms include jaundice, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, itching, and bruising.
7. Lung nodules
When the chest CT scans indicates the following keywords, the possibility of malignancy needs to be considered: nodule size ≥ 8 mm; uneven density; ground glass-like shape; unsmooth edges, gradually increased size and density.
8. Friable moles
Mole cells have a strong ability to regenerate and replicate. If stimulated to cause gene mutation, they may develop into malignant melanoma. The melanoma tends to metastasize and deteriorate quickly, usually it is found in advanced stage. Generally, for the moles on the soles of the feet, palms, or in any area repeated friction is forced, early surgical removal is recommended. Great importance should be attached to moles measured bigger than 6 mm with asymmetry, unclear edges and uneven color, and moles whose size, shape and color have changed.
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*Surgery, in addition to the appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are effective in treating early cancer, but certain patients in late stage of cancer may not be tolerate surgery well as they can be relatively weak. A combination of carefully planned minimally invasive therapy, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can effectively reduce the side effects and discomfort of treatment and may help patient get better efficacy.